Recovering text from a receipt with escpos-tools

I have written previously about how to generate receipts for printers which understand ESC/POS. Today, I thought I would write about the opposite process.

Unlike PostScript, the ESC/POS binary language is not commonly understood by software. I wrote a few utilities last year to help change that, called escpos-tools.

In this post, I’ll step through an example ESC/POS binary file that an escpos-tools user sent to me, and show how we can turn it back into a usable format. The tools we are using are:

You might need this sort of process if you need to email a copy of your receipts, or to archive them for audit use.

Printing the file

Binary print files are generated from drivers. I can feed this one back to my printer like this:

cat receipt.bin > /dev/usb/lp0

My Epson TM-T20 receipt printer understands ESC/POS, and prints this out:

Installing escpos-tools

escpos-tools is not packaged yet, so you need git and composer (from the PHP eco-system) to use it.

$ git clone
$ cd escpos-tools
$ composer install

Inspecting the file

There is text in the file, so the first thing you should try to do is esc2text. In this case, which works like this:

$ php esc2text.php receipt.bin

In this case, I got no output, so I switch to -v to show the commands being found.

$ php esc2text.php receipt.bin  -v
[DEBUG] SetRelativeVerticalPrintPositionCmd 
[DEBUG] GraphicsDataCmd 
[DEBUG] GraphicsDataCmd 
[DEBUG] SetRelativeVerticalPrintPositionCmd 

This indicates that there is no text being sent to the receipt, only images. We know from the print-out that the images contain text, so we need a few more utilities.

Recovering images from the receipt

To extract the images, use escimages. It runs like this:

$ php escimages.php --file receipt.bin
[ Image 1: 576x56 ]
[ Image 2: 576x56 ]
[ Image 3: 576x56 ]
[ Image 4: 576x56 ]
[ Image 5: 576x56 ]
[ Image 6: 576x56 ]
[ Image 7: 576x56 ]
[ Image 8: 576x52 ]

This gave us 8 narrow images:

Using ImageMagick’s convert command, these can be combined into one image like this:

convert -append receipt-*.png -density 70 -units PixelsPerInch receipt.png

The result is now the same as what our printer would output:

Recovering text from the receipt

Lastly, tesseract is an open source OCR engine which can recover text from images. This image is a lossless copy of what we sent to the printer, which is an “easy” input for OCR.

$ tesseract receipt.png -
Estimating resolution as 279
Test Receipt for USB Printer 1

Mar 17, 2018
10:12 PM

Ticket: 01

Item $0,00

Total $0.00

This quality of output is fairly accurate for an untrained reader.


The escpos-tools family of utilities gives some visibility into the contents of ESC/POS binary files.

If you have a use case which requires working with this type of file, then I would encourage you to consider contributing code or example files to the project, so that the utilities can be improved over time.

Get the code

View on GitHub →

Using a receipt printer with the Amazon Echo

Today, I’m going to share this write-up by fellow developer Chris, who used the escpos-php thermal printing library as part of a setup which printed shopping lists via voice commands, using the Alexa Voice Service API to send the lists back to a Raspberry Pi.

Naturally, the easiest solution […] is to print it in thermal paper… Now, combine this with a voice interface, such as ALEXA, and you made yourself a voice controlled list printer.

I found out about this one through a blog comment, and it’s a recommended read for anybody who is interested in how all of these parts integrate.

When I first uploaded this printing library four years ago, the Amazon Echo did not exist yet, and I was solving a very specific problem. For an old technology, it’s interesting to see that new applications for thermal printers are still appearing, and I’m certainly glad to see my software popping up in cool projects like this.

How to communicate with USB and networked devices from in-browser Javascript

I recently combined a few tools on Linux to create a local Websocket listener, which could forward raw data to a USB printer, so that it could be accessed using Javascript in a web browser.

Why would you want this? I have point of sale applications (POS) in mind, which need to send raw data to a printer. For these applications, the browser and operating system print systems are not appropriate, since they prompt, spool, and badly render pages by converting them to low-fidelity raster images.

Web interfaces are becoming common for point-of-sale applications. The web page could be served from somewhere outside your local network, which is why we need to get the client-side Javascript involved.

The tools

To run on the client computer:

And to generate the print data on the webserver:

We will use these tools to provide some plumbing, so that we can retrieve the print data, and send it off to the printer from client-side Javascript.

Client computer

The client computer was a Linux desktop system. Both of the tools we need are available in the Debian repositories:

sudo apt-get install websockify socat

Listen for websocket connections on port 5555 and pass them to localhost:7000:

websockify 5555 localhost:7000

Listen for TCP connections on localhost port 7000 and pass them to the USB device (more advanced version of this previous post):

socat -u TCP-LISTEN:7000,fork,reuseaddr,bind= OPEN:/dev/usb/lp0

Web page

I made a self-contained web-page to provide a button which requested a print file from the network and passed it to the local websocket.

This is slightly modified from a similar example that I used for a previous project.

    <meta charset="UTF-8">
    <title>Web-based raw printing example</title>
<h1>Web-based raw printing example</h1>

<p>This snippet forwards raw data to a local websocket.</p>

  <input type="button" onclick="directPrintBytes(printSocket, [0x1b, 0x40, 0x48, 0x65, 0x6c, 0x6c, 0x6f, 0x20, 0x77, 0x6f, 0x72, 0x6c, 0x64, 0x0a, 0x1d, 0x56, 0x41, 0x03]);" value="Print test string"/>
  <input type="button" onclick="directPrintFile(printSocket, 'receipt-with-logo.bin');" value="Load and print 'receipt-with-logo'" />

<script type="text/javascript">
 * Retrieve binary data via XMLHttpRequest and print it.
function directPrintFile(socket, path) {
  // Get binary data
  var req = new XMLHttpRequest();"GET", path, true);
  req.responseType = "arraybuffer";
  console.log("directPrintFile(): Making request for binary file");
  req.onload = function (oEvent) {
    console.log("directPrintFile(): Response received");
    var arrayBuffer = req.response; // Note: not req.responseText
    if (arrayBuffer) {
      var result = directPrint(socket, arrayBuffer);
      if(!result) {
        alert('Failed, check the console for more info.');

 * Extract binary data from a byte array print it.
function directPrintBytes(socket, bytes) {
  var result = directPrint(socket, new Uint8Array(bytes).buffer);
  if(!result) {
    alert('Failed, check the console for more info.');

 * Send ArrayBuffer of binary data.
function directPrint(socket, printData) {
  // Type check
  if (!(printData instanceof ArrayBuffer)) {
    console.log("directPrint(): Argument type must be ArrayBuffer.")
    return false;
  if(printSocket.readyState !== printSocket.OPEN) {
    console.log("directPrint(): Socket is not open!");
    return false;
  // Serialise, send.
  console.log("Sending " + printData.byteLength + " bytes of print data.");
  return true;

 * Connect to print server on startup.
var printSocket = new WebSocket("ws://localhost:5555", ["binary"]);
printSocket.binaryType = 'arraybuffer';
printSocket.onopen = function (event) {
  console.log("Socket is connected.");
printSocket.onerror = function(event) {
  console.log('Socket error', event);
printSocket.onclose = function(event) {
  console.log('Socket is closed');


On a Apache HTTP webserver, I uploaded the above webpage, and a file with some raw print data, called receipt-with-logo.bin. This file was generated with escpos-php and is available in the repository:

For reference, the test file receipt-with-logo.bin contains this content:


I opened up the web page on the client computer with socat, websockify and an Epson TM-T20II connected. After clicking the “Print” button, the file was sent to my printer. Success!

Because I wasn’t closing the websocket connection, only one browser window could access the printer at a time. Still, it’s a good demo of the basic idea.

To take this from an example to something you might deploy, you would basically just need to keep socat and websockify running in the background as a service (via systemd), close the socket when it’s not being used, and integrate it into a real app.

Different printers, different forwarding

The socat tool can connect to USB, Serial, or Ethernet printers fairly easily.


Forward TCP connections from port 7000 to the receipt printer at /dev/usb/lp0:

socat TCP4-LISTEN:7000,fork /dev/usb/lp0

You can also access the device files directly under /sys/bus/usb/devices/


Forward TCP connections from port 7000 to the receipt printer at /dev/usb/ttyS0:

socat TCP4-LISTEN:7000,fork /dev/usb/ttyS0


Forward TCP connections from port 7000 to the receipt printer at

socat -u TCP-LISTEN:7000,fork,reuseaddr,bind= TCP4-CONNECT:

You can forward websocket connections directly to an Ethernet printer with websockify:

socat -u TCP-LISTEN:7000,fork,reuseaddr,bind= localhost:7000

Other types of printer

If you have another type of printer, such as one accessible only via smbclient or lpr, then you will need to write a helper script.

Direct printing is faster, so I don’t use this method. Check the socat EXEC documentation or man socat if you want to try this.


I’ve had a lot of questions on the escpos-php bug tracker from users who are attempting to print from cloud-hosted apps, which is why I tried this setup.

The browser is a moving target. I have previously written receipt-print-hq/chrome-raw-print, a dedicated app for forwarding WebSocket connections to USB, but that will stop working in a few months when Chrome apps are discontinued. Some time later, WebUSB should become available to make this type of printer available in the browser, which should be infinitely useful for connecting to accessories in point-of-sale setups.

The available tools for generating ESC/POS (receipt printer) binary from the browser are a long way off reaching feature parity with the likes of escpos-php and python-escpos. If you are looking for a side-project, then this a good choice.

Lastly, the socat -u flag makes this all unidirectional, but many types of devices (not just printers) can respond to commands. I couldn’t the end-to-end path to work without this flag, so don’t expect to be able to read from the printer without doing some extra work.

Useful links

Some links that I found while setting this up-

Get the code

View on GitHub →

Using custom fonts to add new glyphs to an Epson printer

I develop a printer driver for ESC/POS receipt printers, and we regularly get feature requests for encoding text in the Chinese, Japanese and Korean languages (“CJK”).

I have recently been looking for a way to add support for these on receipt printers that have no native ability to render them, and thought I would write a bit about some progress so far.

I previously wrote a bit about printing individual bitmaps for each character, where here I am aiming to print entire scripts.


Programmers usually deal with text in UTF-8, but receipt printers don’t. Instead, they still use a series of legacy code pages to represent non-ASCII text. Mapping arbitrary text to something understood by these printers is a huge challenge.

The escpos-php driver will automatically map a lot of western scripts to these code pages. However, if you attempt to send an example string like “日本語” to escpos-php currently, the driver will substitute it with “???”, since it doesn’t know how to convert them to ESC/POS.

On some printers, there are native commands to print Japanese, but for a driver project, we need something with broad compatibility. So, I decided to try to get this working on an Epson TM-T20 variant which has no CJK fonts.

I started by making a new standalone test script, which converts text input into ESC/POS using a cut-down version of the escpos-php printer driver.

$text = file_get_contents("php://stdin");
$connector = new FilePrintConnector("php://stdout");
$printer = new Printer($connector);
$printer -> text($text);
$printer -> cut();
$printer -> close();

I then modified this to print arbitrary UTF-8 text with a local bitmap font. These next sections go through some of the things I had to write to get it all working.

Character representation

I decided to start with the GNU Unifont project, because it ships fixed-width binary fonts in a text format that can be parsed without a font library, is freely licensed, and has excellent coverage.

So the first issue to solve was to do with font sizes:

  • Unifont contains characters that are 8 or 16 pixels wide, that cover the entire Unicode Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP), at 16 characters tall.
  • ESC/POS supports a fixed 12×24 or a smaller 9×17 font.
  • ESC/POS fonts are submitted in a 24 pixel tall format regardless of print area.

Since the characters would be surrounded by too much whitespace in the “Font A” (12×24) representation, I settled on printing in “Font B” (9×17), leaving a one-pixel space underneath, and to the right of each character. These pictures show how the glpyhs (grey) are laid out in the available print area (unused print area in white), in the available memory (unused memory in red).

Note that wider characters have a two-pixel dead-zone on the right. The non-printable 7 pixels at the bottom of the images are ignored by the printer.

The format on the printer for each character stores bits in a column-major format, while most raster formats are row-major, so I wrote a quick converter to rotate the bits. The converter code is not very concise, so I’ll just share a screen capture here. The full code is linked at the end of this post.

Lastly, the output size on paper was tiny, so I set the printer to double the size, which results in text that is around 50% larger than the default output.

Storage of fonts

There is only space for 95 single-width characters in an ESC/POS font, but the scripts are much larger than this.

I treated the font as a queue in this implementation. During the print-out, new characters are added to the font as necessary, and the font is re-written from the front as space runs out. This is also known as a FIFO cache eviction policy.


I converted the string input to an array of Unicode code points to avoid canonicalisaton issues.

$chrArray = preg_split('//u', $text, -1, PREG_SPLIT_NO_EMPTY);
$codePoints = array_map("IntlChar::ord", $chrArray);
foreach($codePoints as $char) {
  $this -> writeChar($char);

The IntlChar class is provided by an extension which is very useful but not widespread, which limits the portability of this code.


I got the list of languages from the sidebar of a Wikipedia article to use as a test string, since it contains short strings in a large number of scripts.

cat test.txt | php unifont-example.php > /dev/usb/lp0

The output contains a large number of correctly rendered scripts, including the CJK output, which was not previously possible on my printer.



Previously, I have tried generating small images from system fonts to send text to the printer. This is quite costly in terms of processing and data transfer, and the printer is unable to format or wrap the text for you.

Storing glyphs in the custom font area involves transferring less raster data, and allows most text formatting commands to be used.


These characters are a different size to the native printer fonts, so we can’t mix them on the same line. This means that we can’t use this code to implement an automatic fallback in escpos-php. However, it may appear in a future version as an alternative “PrintBuffer”, which can be explicitly enabled by developers who are not interested in using the native fonts.

The esc2html utility is not able to emulate custom fonts, so the output cannot currently be rendered without an Epson printer.

Also, we simply printed a stream of characters, which is not really how text works. To implement Unicode, we need to be able to join and compose characters, and respect bi-directional text. Unicode text layout is not trivial at all.

Get the code

The full script is available in the escpos-snippets repo on GitHub, where I store prototypes of new functionality that is not yet ready for prime-time.

escpos-php 2.0 released

There is a new release of the open source receipt printing library escpos-php available from today. For composer users, it is available as mike42/escpos-php

This is the first release to drop PHP 5.3 support, which is good news for many.

The v2.0 release notes detail the changes and lists 10 additional printers tested out by the user base.

Please direct any bug reports to the issue tracker on GitHub. The escpos-php tag on this blog has some tips and examples.

How to print custom currency symbols on a receipt printer

Most receipt printers have a font that contains a ‘$’ sign, and many have settings to print ‘£’ ‘¥’ and ‘€’. However, I don’t know of any that can display the Bitcoin ‘₿’ or Indian Rupee ‘₹’ symbols yet.

I recently answered a question about displaying inline images on receipts from PHP, and I think this would be the best way to output newer currency codes at the moment.

Based on that answer, I used an Epson TM-T20, which understands the ESC/POS page description language, and extended the escpos-php library to list prices on a receipt in Bitcoin.

Option 1: Use an inline image

Start with a 16×24 picture of your custom character. I traced the Font Awesome fa-btc icon:

I then extended escpos-php to issue the ESC * command without breaking the line, and injected this picture like so:

require __DIR__ . '/autoload.php';
use Mike42\Escpos\Printer;
use Mike42\Escpos\EscposImage;
use Mike42\Escpos\PrintConnectors\FilePrintConnector;

class CustomPrinter extends Mike42\Escpos\Printer {

    // Print image inline. If it is a multi-line image, then only the first line is printed!
    public function inlineImage(EscposImage $img, $size = Printer::IMG_DEFAULT)
        $highDensityVertical = ! (($size & self::IMG_DOUBLE_HEIGHT) == Printer::IMG_DOUBLE_HEIGHT);
        $highDensityHorizontal = ! (($size & self::IMG_DOUBLE_WIDTH) == Printer::IMG_DOUBLE_WIDTH);
        // Header and density code (0, 1, 32, 33) re-used for every line
        $densityCode = ($highDensityHorizontal ? 1 : 0) + ($highDensityVertical ? 32 : 0);
        $colFormatData = $img -> toColumnFormat($highDensityVertical);
        $header = Printer::dataHeader(array($img -> getWidth()), true);
        foreach ($colFormatData as $line) {
            // Print each line, double density etc for printing are set here also
            $this -> connector -> write(self::ESC . "*" . chr($densityCode) . $header . $line);

/* Fill in your own connector here */
$connector = new FilePrintConnector("php://stdout");
$printer = new CustomPrinter($connector);

$btc = EscposImage::load("btc.png");

$printer -> text("Item    ");
$printer -> inlineImage($btc);
$printer -> text("2.50\n");

$printer -> cut();
$printer -> close();

The result was:

If you just have a few custom character to print, then this clearly works. Unfortunately, you can’t use text formatting commands alongside this method.

Option 2: Use a custom character set

This is a more complex method, where we will instruct the printer to use a BTC symbol in place of a dollar sign, through a custom character.

You must use a 12×24 image for this method, which is the standard size of the receipt printer font for most Epson models:

The example code now changes to include the ESC % and ESC % commands:

require __DIR__ . '/autoload.php';
use Mike42\Escpos\Printer;
use Mike42\Escpos\EscposImage;
use Mike42\Escpos\PrintConnectors\FilePrintConnector;

class MyCoolPrinter extends Mike42\Escpos\Printer {

    public function setUserDefinedCharacter(EscposImage $img, $char)
        $verticalBytes = 3;
        $colFormatData = $img -> toColumnFormat(true);
        foreach ($colFormatData as $line) {
            // Print each line, double density etc for printing are set here also
            $this -> connector -> write(self::ESC . "&" . chr($verticalBytes) . $char . $char . chr($img -> getWidth()) . $line);

    public function selectUserDefinedCharacterSet($on = true)
        self::validateBoolean($on, __FUNCTION__);
        $this -> connector -> write(self::ESC . "%". ($on ? chr(1) : chr(0)));

/* Fill in your own connector here */
$connector = new FilePrintConnector("php://stdout");
$printer = new MyCoolPrinter($connector);

// Replace '$' with a 24x12 image.
$char = EscposImage::load("btc2.png");
$printer -> setUserDefinedCharacter($char, "$");
$printer -> selectUserDefinedCharacterSet(true);

// Print some stuff normally
$printer -> text("Item    $2.50\n");

$printer -> cut();
$printer -> close();

Which produces this output:

The difference here is that you can also apply text formatting commands to these characters, such as double-height or emphasis:

// ... Add to the end of the previous example

// Print some stuff normally
$printer -> text("Item    $2.50\n");

// Go taller!
$printer -> selectPrintMode(Printer::MODE_DOUBLE_HEIGHT);
$printer -> text("Item    $2.50\n");

// Emphasis too?
$printer -> selectPrintMode(Printer::MODE_DOUBLE_HEIGHT | Printer::MODE_EMPHASIZED);
$printer -> text("Item    $2.50\n");

// Adjust height and width
for ($i = 1; $i <= 8; $i++) {
    $printer -> setTextSize($i, $i);
    $printer -> text("$");
$printer -> text("\n");

$printer -> cut();
$printer -> close();

Both of these methods let us encode arbitrary characters that we couldn’t otherwise be able to print- all we need is bitmaps for each character.

There is no plan to include bitmap fonts with escpos-php at the moment, but this basic mechanism might be used to improve Unicode support for a lot of receipt printers in the future.

Update 2018-03-11: I added the custom character set option to this post.

escpos-php 1.6 released

Another update to the open source receipt printing library escpos-php has been released today. For composer users, it is available as mike42/escpos-php

This is expected to be the final release in the 1.x series. Newer versions will drop support for some end-of-life PHP versions.

The v1.6 release notes detail the changes and lists 13 additional printers tested out by the user base.

Please direct any bug reports to the issue tracker on GitHub. The escpos-php tag on this blog has some tips and examples.

I’ll also call out some related projects that I’ve been involved with, which you should consider contributing to if you are working with thermal receipt printers:

  • escpos-printer-db – Crowd-sourced database of printer features. Add your printer for better support in open source drivers!
  • escpos-tools – Tools to work with ESC/POS binary, including text or image extraction, HTML conversion.
  • chrome-raw-print – A browser plugin to access local printers from a web-page.

How to print PDF417 codes with escpos-php

This post is a reference for printing PDF417 2-dimensional codes to a receipt printer, using the escpos-php.

I’ve got an older post about printing QR codes with escpos-php, which follows the same format and has some more background and links if you haven’t printed receipts from PHP before.

Straight from the documentation, the syntax for the command that I’m demonstrating is:

pdf417Code($content, $width, $heightMultiplier, $dataColumnCount, $ec, $options)

Print a two-dimensional data code using the PDF417 standard.

  • string $content: Text or numbers to store in the code
  • number $width: Width of a module (pixel) in the printed code. Default is 3 dots.
  • number $heightMultiplier: Multiplier for height of a module. Default is 3 times the width.
  • number $dataColumnCount: Number of data columns to use. 0 (default) is to auto-calculate. Smaller numbers will result in a narrower code, making larger pixel sizes possible. Larger numbers require smaller pixel sizes.
  • real $ec: Error correction ratio, from 0.01 to 4.00. Default is 0.10 (10%).
  • number $options: Standard code Printer::PDF417_STANDARD with start/end bars, or truncated code Printer::PDF417_TRUNCATED with start bars only.

These PDF417 snippets above appear in the examples of escpos-php.

Simple example

A basic code that just says ‘testing 123’, and a demonstration of a narrower code that has been aligned:

// Most simple example
title($printer, "PDF417 code demo\n");
$testStr = "Testing 123";
$printer -> pdf417Code($testStr);
$printer -> text("Most simple example\n");
$printer -> feed();

// Demo that alignment is the same as text
$printer -> setJustification(Printer::JUSTIFY_CENTER);
$printer -> pdf417Code($testStr, 3, 3, 2);
$printer -> text("Same content, narrow and centred\n");
$printer -> setJustification();
$printer -> feed();

Error correction

This implementation accepts an error correction ratio as a percentage. The minimum is 1%, the highest is 400%, expressed as a decimal (0.01 – 4.00).

Higher error correction settings create lager codes that are more resilient to scanning errors due to damage.

// Demo of error correction
title($printer, "Error correction\n");
$testStr = "Testing 123";
$ec = array(0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0);
foreach ($ec as $level) {
    $printer -> pdf417Code($testStr, 3, 3, 0, $level);
    $printer -> text("Error correction ratio $level\n");
    $printer -> feed();

Pixel size (width)

The same example string, with some different module widths. Note that the blocks in the code scale in bot directions when the width is changed.

Larger print is easier for a scanner to read, but takes up more paper.

// Change size
title($printer, "Pixel size\n");
$testStr = "Testing 123";
$sizes = array(
    2 => "(minimum)",
    3 => "(default)",
    4 => "",
    8 => "(maximum)");
foreach ($sizes as $size => $label) {
    $printer -> pdf417Code($testStr, $size);
    $printer -> text("Module width $size dots $label\n");
    $printer -> feed();

Height multiplier

The height of the modules in the code can also be changed, stretching it do a different degree. PDF417 that are too vertically squashy are more prone to scanning errors.

// Change height
title($printer, "Height multiplier\n");
$testStr = "Testing 123";
$sizes = array(
    2 => "(minimum)",
    3 => "(default)",
    4 => "",
    8 => "(maximum)");
foreach ($sizes as $size => $label) {
    $printer -> pdf417Code($testStr, 3, $size);
    $printer -> text("Height multiplier $size $label\n");
    $printer -> feed();

Data column count

The of data columns to print in the code can be customised to produce a narrower code. But beware, if you request a code that’s too big for the paper, nothing will be printed!

// Change data column count
title($printer, "Data column count\n");
$testStr = "Testing 123";
$columnCounts = array(
    0 => "(auto, default)",
    1 => "",
    2 => "",
    3 => "",
    4 => "",
    5 => "",
    30 => "(maximum, doesnt fit!)");
foreach ($columnCounts as $columnCount => $label) {
    $printer -> pdf417Code($testStr, 3, 3, $columnCount);
    $printer -> text("Column count $columnCount $label\n");
    $printer -> feed();

Truncated code option

Use this setting to select the alternative, ‘truncated’ code format.

// Change options
title($printer, "Options\n");
$testStr = "Testing 123";
$models = array(
    Printer::PDF417_STANDARD => "Standard",
    Printer::PDF417_TRUNCATED => "Truncated");
foreach ($models as $model => $name) {
    $printer -> pdf417Code($testStr, 3, 3, 0, 0.10, $model);
    $printer -> text("$name\n");
    $printer -> feed();


To run the snippets, you need to initialise the printer, and define a title() function to print headings, like so:

/* Demonstration of available options on the qrCode() command */
require __DIR__ . '/autoload.php';
use Mike42\Escpos\Printer;
use Mike42\Escpos\PrintConnectors\FilePrintConnector;
$connector = new FilePrintConnector("/dev/usb/lp0");
$printer = new Printer($connector);

// ....

// Cut & close
$printer -> cut();
$printer -> close();

function title(Escpos $printer, $str) {
    $printer -> selectPrintMode(Printer::MODE_DOUBLE_HEIGHT | Printer::MODE_DOUBLE_WIDTH);
    $printer -> text($str);
    $printer -> selectPrintMode();

In the QR code post, I posted a fallback which used software rendering. As I don’t have a PHP-based PDF417 code library, you will need a printer which supports them to be blue to use these examples.

Good luck!